Wednesday, 1 July 2020

Job Roles in Cosmetic Production Industry

One of my contacts owns a small and developing cosmetic manufacturing firm. He wanted to give proper job titles for his employees. So I did some search and created a list of jobs that may be used in the cosmetic manufacturing industry. I have listed them below if someone wants to find similar information.

CEO - Chief Executive Officer

Marketing Team

Marketing Manage
Marketing Executive
Marketing Trainee

Accounting Team

Chief Account
Account Assistant
Account Clerk

Sales Team

Sale Manager
Sale Executive
Sale Trainee

Research & Development Team

Director(Research and Development)
Product Development Manager
Clinical Lead

Human Resource Team

HR Manager
HR Executive
HR Trainee

Quality Management Team

Quality Manager
Quality Engineer
Quality Executive
Quality Supervisor
Quality Inspector
Quality Assurance Test Professional
Test Analyst
Clinical Lead
Laboratory Manager

Production Team

Production Manager
Manufacturing Engineer
Material Planner
Production Control Analyst
Production Team Lead
Production Line Manager
Product Operative
Packing Operative

Advertising Team

Brand Manager
Brand Ambassador
Product Manager
Social Media Manager
Social Media Executive

Tuesday, 26 February 2019

Qualitative Analysis of Data on a Semi-Structured Interview

I had to conduct a qualitative analysis of data collected by means of Semi-Structured Interviews. I am using this blog post to give details method and data related to the analysis.

1. Recordings of Interviews - These are anonymous.

  1. Recording 1
  2. Recording 2
  3. Recording 3
  4. Recording 4
  5. Recording 5
  6. Recording 6
  7. Recording 7
  8. Recording 8
  9. Recording 9
  10. Recording 10
  11. Recording 11
2. Transcripts in the language the conducted the interview

2. Final Transcripts in English

Sunday, 30 July 2017

Voluntary Sampling Method combined with Social Media Advertising

Dr M H B Ariyaratne
MBBS, MSc(Biomedical Informatics)
Trainee in MD(Health Informatics) at Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

In statistics, we have two main categories of Sampling Methods, Probability Sampling and Non-Probability Sampling.

A voluntary sampling is one of the main types of non-probability sampling methods. A voluntary sample is made up of people who self-select into the survey. Often, these folks have a strong interest in the main topic of the survey.

One of the most recent advancements in information and communication technology to interact with a "population" is Web-2.0. It allows internet users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media context.

In a research, I want to identify the models of different patterns of prescription writing. My reference population is clinicians across the world. I need to use a convenient sampling method. I have created a self-administered questionnaire to collect data for the research. I create a google form to match the questionnaire. The answers will be collected in a google sheet.

I am combining the voluntary sampling method with the Web-2.0 technology to select my sample by utilizing that opportunities of Web-2.0 to reach out to a global study population.

I thought to advertise on social media sites like FaceBook to fill my questionnaire. I will include a message in the advertisement like "if you are a clinician involved in making prescriptions, please spend three minutes to answer eight simple questions for my research.". Those who volunteer to answer questions will be included in the sample population.

The advantages include that I can reach a very large population which is mainly limited by the cost of advertising. The site like Facebook allows us to select the target population for the advertisement depending on characters like geography, age, sex, occupation and interests. The data entered through the questionnaire is immediately available for analysis. There is no need to enter data as in a paper based questionnaires.

The disadvantages include that the sample may not represent the study population. For example, even though I have advertised it for clinicians, a non-clinician may enter data to the google form.

This method of sampling may be identified as "WEB-2.0 SAMPLING" or "SOCIAL MEDIA SAMPLING".

I have defined this as below.

''SOCIAL MEDIA SAMPLING'' or ''WEB-2.0 SAMPLING'' is a sub type of voluntary sampling where sample population is made up of people who self-select into the survey. Its sample is drawn from voluntary responders to advertisements on Social Media Sites. This method is suitable for a research which can be done through filling a questionnaire.The target population for advertisements can be selected by characteristics like demography, age, gender, income, occupation, education level or interests using advertising tools provided by the social media sites. The advertisement may include a message about the research and will link to a web survey. After voluntary following the link and submitting the web based questionnaire, the respondent will be included in the sample population. This method can reach a global population and limited by the advertisement budget. This method may permit volunteers outside the reference population to volunteer and get included in the sample. It is difficult to make generalizations about the total population from this sample because it would not be representative enough. 

Thursday, 8 December 2011

A simple, yet powerful design model to manage records

(Published in 2011)


A user interface to create, read, update or delete records (CRUD) is an essential component of any computer system. The existing user interfaces and activities in record management can be further optimized. Some existing CRUD interfaces involve migrating to a few different pages with a different set of controls and different functionalities. This proposed model is developed to achieve all the functions related to record management on the same page with the same set of controls. This model can achieve all the CRUD functionality in a single page with the same set of controls using minimal interactions. This model ensures a higher level of user-friendliness with more efficient resource management. The proposed model can be extended easily to accommodate specific requirements in different situations.


Several entities need to have CRUD functionality even in a simple software solution. The users may view records through the user interface. They may update the viewed record or delete that. The users also need to create new records. This functionality is currently achieved by different systems using a combination of pages. Each page involved has different components with different actions on each page. These systems could have been improved to achieve the same functionality in a simpler and more user-friendly manner. This article discusses a simple, yet powerful model to manage records which have a more user-friendly UI and lesser interactions to achieve the same CRUD operations. This proposed model can achieve all CRUD functions in a single page with the same set of control with minimal interactions.

Existing Modals for Record Management

When users manage records, they have to perform actions like adding a new record, viewing an existing record, altering and updating a selected record or deleting one. In order to achieve that functionality, some systems needed to navigate to a few different pages with a different set of controls on each page.

Some systems provide links like Add New, Search, Edit, Previous and Next, to achieve CRUD functionality. The users have to navigate to different page views at different stages of activities of CRUD functions. The controls appear on one page may be different from another; hence the users have to adapt to different situations depending on the action he is undertaking. Even very popular applications have suboptimal CRUD interfaces. The first examples given here is CRUD functionality is OpenMRS, which is a popular Open Source Electronic Medical Record System. The other example is automatically generated JSF page Cby NetBeans for CRUD operations for Entity Classes.

Open MRS has one page to view a Record, Figure 1. It has several links like "Previous", "Edit",  "Next", "New" and "Search". The page to Edit a Record, Figure 2, is different from the page to view a Record. It has links like "Save" and "Delete" at the bottom of the page. There is another page to create a Record, Figure 3, which is different from previous pages. It has a link "Save", but some links in other pages like "Search" are missing. This example is clear evidence that there are several different pages involved in CRUD operations. Each different page has a different combination of controls. The placement of controls also differs among the pages.

Figure 1: Open MRS interface for viewing a record

Figure 2: OpenMRS interface for Updating a Record

Figure 3: OpenMRS interface for Creating a Record

Figure 4: View during creating a new item

Figure 5: Soon after saving the newly created item

Figure 6: Listing all Items

Figure 7: View after Preparing to Edit a record

Figure 8: View soon after saving changes to an existing record

The modal I developed have following characters.

• Same User Interface for all record management functions.

• Ability to directly navigate to all possible sequence of actions that involves record management.

• Minimizing accidental mismanagement of records

• Simple, user friendly arrangement of the user interface

• Ability to extend the functionality depending on specific requirements.

I have attached two demonstrations of the modal, one using Visual Basic 6, which I used for 8 years now and the other using Java Server Faces, which I finished few days back.
There is a list of the records on the left side of the page. On top of that list, there is a text box to search the records. Immediately below the list, there are three buttons, named here as Add, Edit and Delete. On the right side of the page, the details of the selected record are displayed. Immediately below the details, there are two buttons, namely Save and Cancel. In windows MDI forms, I include a Close button on the right lower most corner as well.
There is two states in my modal, select mode and modify mode. During the select mode the search text box, list box and buttons on the left side are active. The details and buttons on the right are visible, but not active in this select mode. In the modify mode, the details and buttons on the right are active while the others are inactive.

When the window opened or web page requested, the select mode is active. In this state, a text can be entered in the search text box. The list can be clicked and immediately the details of the selected record will be displayed on the right side. If Add button is clicked, all the details are cleared on the right side and page is shifted to modify mode. In this modify mode, no search text can be entered to search box and the list is inactive. After adding the details for a new record, the user has two choices, either to Save the changes or to discard them clicking Save button or the Cancel button respectively. This will bring back the Select mode. In select mode, after selecting a record, Edit button can be clicked and the controls already displaying the details of the record will become editable. After making changes, Save button or Cancel button can be selected as needed.

The Delete button is active only during the Select mode. After selecting the record, which will also display the details of the record immediately, user can click the Delete button to delete it.

Every functionality involved in record management can be achieved in the very same window or the page. The buttons in all situations remain the same place, and the user is not needed to adjust to different views of different states.

This basic functionality can be adjusted to meet different requirements without major modifications. The search box here searches one field of the records, and several search boxes in a tabbed pane can be added to search multiple fields. The list box may contain only one field, like for example, name of grocery items, but can use a table with the name and the price, instead of a list box. At the onset, the listbox can be populated with all the items or it can be populated depending on the search text. If all the items are listed, as the user continue to enter letters to the search box, the most suitable selection can bring to the top of the list or can just remove all the non matching ones from the list. As the search text is expanded, the best possible list may be selected from the list below and its details are displayed on the right side. When that is not suitable in some situations, the selection of a record in the list can be delayed until the exact match is achieved, so the details are not displayed until then. The user can stop entering the remaining search text and directly click on the list below to select and display the record.

The Add, Edit and Delete buttons can be remained active throughout the select mode or it they can be selectively make active or inactive depending on the requirement. Add button can be made inactive if a record is already selected in the list. Edit and Delete buttons can be inactive till an exact selection is made in the list.

If there is need to Edit multiple records simultaneously, select many type of a list box can be used. When multiple selections are made, only the common values of all the selected records will be displayed. Depending on the requirements, the values of all the records can be updated with a single click on Save button.

If users request even lesser clicking of buttons, Edit buttons, Save button and Cancel button can be omitted. In that case, when ever selection is made, the controls displayed on the right will be editable and whatever the changes made will be save when selecting another one or closing the page or the window.

Figure 9: VB6 Demo - Select Mode, before selecting any item

Figure 10: VB6 Demo - Select Mode, after selecting item

Figure 11: VB6 Demo - Modify mode, after selecting one and clicking Edit Button

Figure 12: VB6 Demo - Modify mode, after clicking Add Button

Figure 13: JSF Demo - Select mode, before entering any search text

Figure 14: JSF Demo - Select mode, after entering some search text

Figure 15: JSF Demo - Modify mode after clicking on Edit button

Figure 16: JSF Demo - Modify mode after clicking Add button

First demo, which was developed using VB6, can be downloaded from the link as an installation shield setup in a zip folder. The JSF demo, is available in my local computer with a 512mbits/sec ADSL connection with a dynamic IP, is configured to be accessed through dynamic to static IP site, In that demo, I have used Ajax and whole process is asynchronous.
I did not intend to take any copyrights or patenting and I will be grateful to you if you can give me a feedback.

Implementation of the modal is very simple, and if anyone is interested, I can help or give the source code for the demos.

Latest Updated Article

Blog Article

Contact Details

Name: Dr M. H. B. Ariyaratne, MBBS (Sri Lanka), Postgraduate Trainee for MSc (Biomedical Informatics)

Email :,

Phone : (+94) 71 58 12399, (+94) 91 22 41603

Skype : buddhika.ari

Thursday, 20 October 2011

Overview of The Human Genetics Unit (HGU)

(Published in 2011)

The Human Genetics Unit (HGU) of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo is the only centre in Sri Lanka dedicated to providing clinical genetic services including genetic testing and genetic counselling. At the moment, the record-keeping in the HGU is done manually through a paper-based system.

This system is introduced to keep all the records electronically so that the entering, retrieving and analyzing the data will be optimized with the use of Information Technology. At the moment, this is under evaluation and yet to be tested prior to the acceptance as the functioning system.

OpenMRS is used as the platform which has been extensively customized to achieve the functionality. Modules have been developed and added to the OpenMRS where customization alone is not sufficient to meet the specific requirements.

The system is a client and server-based system. There is a central application server and a data server. The clients can access the system through internet browsers through intranet or internet.
The system is developed initially by Dr M. H. B. Ariyaratne as the project for the MSc(Biomedical Informatics). Administrators can be added as needed as authorized by the Head of the HGU, and they will have to capacity to improve the system further. The source codes for the modules added are also available in the application server at the HGU.

The ownership and the authority completely lie with the Head of the HGU. The administers when appointed by the HGU, can manage the other users and the system. The other users are given the privileges to access the system in the way that they are allowed to use the system to achieve their specific tasks while preventing the access of unwanted features.

Sunday, 21 August 2011

Why OpenMRS?

(Published in 2011)

I have made up my mind to adapt an opensource software as my final MSc project. Then the question was what is the best open-source software that I can use to achieve the goals of my project. I have gone through several available options and finally, I decided to go for OpenMRS. The strategic and personal reasons that made me come to the conclusion are listed below.

OpenMRS is based on Java Enterprise Edition. I have been studying and practising JEE in the recent past and I have very good faith in its capabilities. Java Persistence API is a very useful technology and it is used in openMRS to connect to the database. MySQL, which is commonly used as the database is also very familiar to me.

Modular Based
Grater Popularity
Good Community Support
Robust data Model
Comply with health standards

Adapting Open Source Vs Build From Scratch

(Published in 2011)

At the onset, I was planning to develop an Electronic Health Record System from scratch. I have been developing medical software for six years and there is one electronic health record system developed by myself that is practised by five general practitioners in Sri Lanka. I have been improving the system design depending on the feedback and I had only to develop cording in Java. When I presented my project proposal in front of my supervisor, they thought that is a project for the lifetime and advised me to customize or develop a module for OpenMRS instead of developing one by myself. I am comparing the methodology of adopting open-source software and developing one from scratch.


The chances that I can build the relevant solution without many compromises is more when I develop it. If I adopt another system, there may be some essential features that is missing and difficult to add on in the already available system whereas there may be several features that need not be there according to system analysis.

For example, when adding details of an encounter, the observations needed to be categorized to categories and subcategories. That feature was missing on OpenMRS. OpenMRS had a feature like Regimens, which was not a system requirement.

Architectural Choices

The choice of selecting what are the technologies I use can be decided by myself when I want to develop the software myself, whereas we have to adhere to the choices of someone else when we adopt open-source software.

OpenMRS uses Hibernate as the JPA implementation library and I prefer to use Eclipse Link which is more efficient. (1,2) Instead of JSP and Spring Framework which are used in OpenMRS and I would love to use JSF, the new front-end framework(3,4) from ORACLE itself.

Smaller Footprint

What the programmer need to code to develop custom made software are limited and hence the resources. The codebase used in already available software generally have more code and hence use more resources.

Learning Curve

The custom made software is developed in familiar technologies and well-practised methodologies. When adopting another one's code, there are new things to learn and will take some additional time to master the coding. In fact, many developers hate to go through someone else's code. When an error is found, debugging is difficult as the code is someone else creation, which is not familiar to the one who is adapting.

Online Support

When a custom made software is developed, the issues arise that need support is related to technologies like Java and MySQL. They have a wider audience and the support available online is huge. There are thousands of sites which host forums to address the issues related to Java. In contrast, the issues arise are more or less related to the software alone. There is mostly one site which allows forums and mailing lists and the support community is very limited.

Why rebuild?

These days it is not that uncommon to find a ready-made software that meets most, if not all, the requirements of the system. In such a situation, it is a fair question to ask why does someone else has to redo the same again. They have addressed the issues like security and no need to waste human resources on building the same over and over again. If the available solution is an open-source, that will also allow adaptation of the system to match to very fine customization needed by the system requirements. If adaptation is done systematically after a good background analysis about all the possible solutions, there can be saving of a significant amount of money and time.

Still Custom

Already available open-source ready-made software can also be considered still as custom made. In fact, someone can make it a custom software.


Community effort of several volunteers with expertise in different fields like Java or MySQL. The quality of software developed by many can not even be compared with a custom made product by one or a few developers with a limited number of fields.

Budding concepts

The person who is developing a new software may be having some concept that has the potential to modify the future of the industry. Such new concepts are not always applicable when adapting another product. If everyone get used to adapt something already exists, there will be slower development of the industry.

After considering the benefits and risks of each method, finally I decided to select adopting an open-source EHR rather than developing one of my own in developing a system as my MSc project. Up to now I have no regrets.